This article is from the UK Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/7538264/Men-owe-women-for-creating-beer.html
Men owe women for ‘creating beer’
One of man’s great pleasures might be a pint of beer at the local – but an expert has claimed it would never have existed without the entrepreneurial skills of women.
By Nick Britten
Published: 1:47PM BST 30 Mar 2010
Jane Peyton, 48, an author, said women created beer and for thousands of years it was only they who were allowed to operate breweries and drink beer.
The drink is now almost exclusively marketed to men – with television characters such as Homer Simpson the epitome of the beer-loving male. Miss Peyton has conducted extensive research into the origins of beer for a new book and reports that a woman’s touch was found on beer throughout the ages.
Nearly 7,000 years ago in Mesopotamia and Sumeria, so important were their skills that they were the only ones allowed to brew the drink or run any taverns.
And in almost all ancient societies beer was also then considered to be a gift from a goddess, never a male God.
Between the eighth and tenth centuries AD the Vikings spread terror by rampaging through Europe, fuelled by women-made ale.
Women were the exclusive brewers in Norse society and all equipment by law remained their property.
And Ancient Finland also credits the creation of beer to the fairer sex, with three women, a bear’s saliva and wild honey the apparent first ingredients.
In England ale was traditionally made in the home by women. They were known as brewsters or ale-wives and the sale of the drink provided a valuable income for many households.
It quickly became an essential staple of the diet and even royalty indulged in the tasty beverage.
Queen Elizabeth I, like most people of the era, consumed it for breakfast and at other times of the day.
But by the start of the late 18th century and the Industrial Revolution, new methods of making beer meant women’s contribution slowly started to decline and be forgotten, until now.
Miss Peyton said: “I know men will be absolutely stunned to find this out, but they’ve got women to thank for beer.”